Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA)

Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) is organic agriculture based on local and renewable resources with an integration of animal and crop production (on each farm or farms in close proximity). This way a large part of the nutrient uptake in the fodder production (in Europe about 80 % of the arable land is used for producing fodder) is effectively recycled. This in effect means that each farm strives to be self-sufficient in fodder production which in turn limits animal density and ensures a more even distribution of animals to most farms.

As with organic farming no pesticides or artificial fertilisers are employed in ecological recycling agriculture. In addition the following principles are required in ERA:

  • crop rotation

           including leys with legumes etc  

  • balanced animal stock

           0.5  – 1.0 animal livestock units/hectare. 1 livestock unit is approximately equivalent to the energy need  of a cow who weighs 550  kg and milks 6000 kg milk/year

  • self sufficiency in resources

           more than 80% self-sufficiency with fodder and manure

As a farmer you will need a good plan and good support and you may need to make serious investments. The good news is that this support is available and that the result is awarding - both to you as a farmer and to a cleaner Baltic Sea.

A list of ERA farms active in the project is available here

To support conversion to ecological recycling agriculture BERAS Implementation applies several measures. We offer advisory services to farmers in the Baltic Sea drainage area that wish to go through the conversion process. Guidelines for farms converting to ERA have been developed by experts in the ERA principles of farming. Also a book with farm examples from farms going through conversion to ERA is included as a separate volume in the Guidelines.

For questions and more information please contact one of our national coordinators: 


International Public Association
of Animal Breeders “East-West”

Dzmitry Lutayeu


The Danish Ecological Council

Leif Bach Jørgensen


Estonian Organic Farming Foundation (EOFF)

Airi Vetemaa


MTT Agrifood Research Finland

Pentti Seuri


Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research

Karin Stein-Bachinger


Latvian Rural Advisory and Training Centre

Laura Ludevika


Baltic Foundation HPI

Jolanta Paulaitiene

Mobile Information Center



Polish Ecological Club in Krakow, City of Gliwice Chapter

Maria Staniszewska


Södertörn University

Artur Granstedt




Did you know?

An average Swede uses 4000 m2 of arable land for their food production.

Half of that area, 2000 m2 per person, would be enough if we reduce the amount of meat to about 20% of the food consumed.

2000 m2 per person corresponds to the average of Earth’s total cultivated area, divided equally among all people.